This project aims at developing theoretical perspectives on the nature of human society, paying due attention to comparison along the evolutionary axis between non-human primates and human societies. It will contribute to this connection and to rethinking the plausible extent to which “culture” plays in the formation of characteristically human society. At the second stage of the long-term research project, the focus will be on the “institution”, following the “group” as the focus of the previous stage. This project is scheduled to run for three years with a target of five workshops to be held per year. Discussion will be based on the final theoretical achievement of this project.